Globalization 2.0: One for all, all for one



Globalization has provided the world with a series of positive outcomes, yet at the same time, it has left us with a series of complex challenges. From terrorism, global warming, cyber spying, humanitarian crisis to global epidemics, the interconnectivity that characterizes a world in constant transformation has forced us to assume shared responsibilities.

In the last few years, international relations have played (and will continue to play) a significant role in the global scenario. Today, however, the new challenges that diplomacy faces are those of finding ways to channel a kaleidoscope of global interests and translate them into consensus and cooperation in order to face these new sets of shared responsibilities.

What do the Chikungunya and Ebola viruses, groups like Boko Haram or ISIS, global warming, the Ukraine crisis, and organized crime have in common?

Although apparently disconnected, all these elements represent threats to global stability. Either in terms of health, peace, or political stability, all these factors have left undercover the fact that with the interconnectivity imposed by globalization, every financial shock, epidemic, or outbreak of violence affects and concerns us all.

Until recently, the concept of sovereignty was perceived to be something sacred, as it has been an overarching principle in modern international relations. Although given term has evolved ever since its first appearance during the treaties of Westphalia in 1648, it can be argued that today’s globalization and interconnectedness have permeated both the idea of sovereignty and that of the nation-state, to the point of leaving us with blurred borders.

As a consequence, the nations of the world have increased their efforts to find solutions to these challenges by integrating either with commercial, political, economic, or social purposes. Hence, gradually, the world is realizing that those factors that were considered exogenous are starting to become endogenous. This is to say, the world is more aware that there is only a one-way street to solving these issues: cooperation.

Thanks to globalization, we now have the ability to transport and communicate in ways we had never thought possible in the past. On the other hand, parallel to the free movement of commercial goods, ideas and technologies; we also face the free circulation of weapons, drugs, ideologies, and diseases. Therefore, globalization has provided a world of opportunities full of externalities, which, if not handled properly can end up overshadowing the advances we have made so far.

Thus, we are left with the task of creating supranational institutions that are both able to respect nations’ sovereignty, as well as able to recognize that globalization has permeated frontiers that we had once thought to be unbreakable. Although this may appear to be paradoxical, the way out of every challenge is now rooted in acknowledging shared responsibilities and agreeing on taking actions by means of consensus.

The world cannot lose sight of the fact that in the midst of difficult times, alienation and wars are not viable alternatives. For such reasons, it is imperative to continue to find new horizons in diplomacy and supranational institutions in order to reach the common good.


Globalización 2.0: Uno para todos, todos para uno 

La globalización ha dejado sus frutos en el mundo, y con éstos, una nueva serie de retos de naturaleza compleja. Desde terrorismo, calentamiento global, ciberespionaje, crisis humanitarias, hasta epidemias globales. La interconectividad que caracteriza a un mundo en constante transformación nos ha dejado la tarea de asumir la responsabilidad compartida de nuestras acciones.

En los últimos años, las relaciones internacionales han jugado (y continuarán jugando) un papel determinante en el escenario global. Hoy en día, el nuevo reto de la diplomacia radica en canalizar un caleidoscopio de intereses y transformarlos en consenso para poder hacer frente a los retos que vienen por delante.

 Qué tienen en común los virus de Chikungunya y Ebola, ISIS, Boko Haram, el cambio climático, la crisis en Ucrania, y el crimen organizado?

Tanto estos virus que representan una amenaza contra la salud mundial, como grupos terroristas, aquellos dedicados al narcotráfico, así como los diversos focos de conflicto que existen en el mundo, han dejado al descubierto que con la interconectividad interpuesta por la globalización, cada shock financiero, epidemia y foco de violencia nos concierne y afecta a todos.

Hasta hace poco, el concepto de soberanía resultaba casi intocable al ser un principio transversal de las relaciones internacionales modernas. Si bien dicho termino ha evolucionado de gran manera desde su aparición durante el primer congreso diplomático de Westfalia en el año 1648, se puede argumentar que la globalización y la interdependencia han permeado tanto la idea de soberanía como la de la nación-estado hasta el punto de dejarnos con límites borrosos.

Como consecuencia, las naciones del mundo han incrementado sus esfuerzos por encontrar soluciones a estos retos al integrarse ya sea con fines comerciales, políticos, económicos, o sociales. De manera tal que gradualmente el mundo está realizando que aquellos factores que alguna vez considerados exógenos también se han convertido en endógenos. Es decir, el mundo está cada vez más consciente de que existe sólo una vía para resolver estos retos: la cooperación.

Gracias a la globalización, tenemos la habilidad de transportarnos y comunicarnos de maneras que nunca hubiésemos creído posibles. Por otra parte, paralelo a la libre circulación de bienes comerciales, ideas y tecnologías, también enfrentamos la libre circulación de armas, drogas, ideologías y enfermedades. Por lo tanto, la globalización ha proporcionado un mundo de oportunidades lleno de externalidades -que de no ser manejadas apropiadamente- podrían terminar opacando los avances que hemos hecho hasta el momento.

 Así, nos encontramos con la tarea de crear instituciones supranacionales que sean capaces de respetar la soberanía de las naciones y a la vez de reconocer que la globalización ha permeado fronteras que alguna vez creímos inquebrantables. Y, aunque esto pueda parecer paradójico, la vía de salida a cada reto tiene sus raíces en el reconocimiento de las responsabilidades compartidas que el desarrollo ha traído consigo.

 El mundo no puede perder de vista que en medio de tiempos difíciles, la alienación y guerras no son alternativas viables. Por estas razones, es imperativo continuar buscando nuevos horizontes en la diplomacia y en instituciones supranacionales para así poder lograr el bien común.


  1. Hmnn … I struggle with some aspects of “globalization” that seem in need of resolution to justify the term. Economics for one: the imbalance between great wealth (proportonatly) in some places with widespread poverty elsewhere; ongoing globalization raises the poor a little while lowering the rich a great deal; that seems a destabilizing process.
    Then, government becomes an issue; the more remote government becomes from the local needs of citizens, the less effectively it can respond to them and must therefore, rely upon increasing compulsion or accept an ineffectual status. And both are destabilizing, seems to me.
    And finally, Russia, China etc. will be a difficult fit into a cooperative world and such are forever popping up, given human nature.

    Our technology and plain logic demand centralization of many kinds but our stubborn inability to govern ourselves appears to interfere with optimization, at least to date. Or so it seems to me …
    Perhaps it’s just excessive pessimism?


    • Yes, without a doubt ! You point out some of the challenges of our globalized world, such as inequality. Yet, beyond acknowledging all the things we need to fix along the way, we should address the question of whether or not governments and societies alike are able and willing to cooperate to solve this problems. Perhaps it is too soon to be pessimistic, but it is always a positive thing to question ourselves if we’re doing enough to fix and catch up with the outcomes/consequences of globalization.


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